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A study on the relations between Egypt and Sudan (1899-2011)

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posted on 2024-03-07, 03:21 authored by Jingwei Zhang

Egypt and Sudan had shared close and special relations for thousands of years until the end of the 19th century, when their relations began to change under British colonialism. With the independence of Egypt and Sudan after World War II, Egyptian- Sudanese relations has become one of the important international relations affecting security and stability of the Nile Valley and even Middle East and North Africa. 

From the establishment of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan in 1899 to the separation between Sudan and South Sudan in 2011, Egyptian-Sudanese relations can be divided into four periods: formation and initial development from 1899 to 1952, transformation and exploration from 1952 to 1969, ups and downs and adjustment from 1969 to 1989, and deterioration and recovery from 1989 to 2011. 

The overall Egyptian-Sudanese relations were relatively stable, but problems occurred from time to time, leading to fluctuation and even deterioration of their relations at a certain stage. The autonomy of Egyptian-Sudanese relations had increased since the colonial era with Sudan constantly challenging the leading position of Egypt and the increasing instability of their relations. Though Egypt and Sudan were always able to resolve problems through consultations and negotiations when their relations were strained, the restoration and recovery of Egyptian-Sudanese relations was limited. 

There are some factors influencing the change of Egyptian-Sudanese relations: interactions of nationalism under the influence of colonialism; disputes caused by the legacy of colonialism; adjustments for national development and changes of their national interests; different attitudes towards secular politics and religious politics. 

It can be concluded as follows: First, during the colonial era, Egyptian-Sudanese relations was strengthened, yet their relations had changed deeply. Second, the twists and turns of Egyptian-Sudanese relations were not only influenced by colonialism itself, but also by their national interests as well as the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Third, the tortuous Egyptian-Sudanese relations remain unbroken with a strong initiative, which could resist colonialism alongside with control and infiltration from super powers to a certain extent. Moreover, Egypt and Sudan had a strong ability to reconcile contradictions of each other. They could independently solve differences and promote cooperation and development. 


Table of Contents

Chapter One: Formation and Initial Development: The Special Relations between Egypt and Sudan from 1899 to 1952 -- Chapter Two: Transformation and Exploration: Egyptian-Sudanese relations from 1952 to 1969 -- Chapter Three: Ups and Downs and Adjustment: Egyptian-Sudanese relations from 1969 to 1989 -- Chapter Four: Deterioration and Restoration: Egyptian-Sudanese relations from 1989 to 2011 -- Conclusions -- Bibliography -- Appendix: Chronology of major events in Egyptian-Sudanese relations from 1899 to 2011


Completed in partnership with the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis PhD


Doctor of Philosophy

Department, Centre or School

Macquarie School of Social Sciences

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

Noah Bassil

Additional Supervisor 1

Jiankang Bi


Copyright: The Author Copyright disclaimer:




Egypt Sudan


277 pages

Former Identifiers

AMIS ID: 277921

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