Macquarie University
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Amphibole and magma evolution: insights from composite xenoliths from Batan Island, Philippines

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posted on 2022-03-28, 13:30 authored by Mitchell Gerdes
Volcanism is the end product of many complex processes occurring beneath volcanic arcs at subduction settings. Processes, such as metasomatism of the mantle, partial melting, crystal fractionation and eruption, can only be inferred from erupted material. Two exceptions are arc terranes and the rare entrainment of mantle xenoliths. Multiple component xenoliths have been erupted in high K, calc-alkaline andesites on Batan Island, the Philippines. However literature has only described the peridotite components, not the amphibole rind or gabbro components. Combining novel and conventional analysis techniques, prior work has been placed in the context of this composite xenoliths formation. Interestingly, amphibole is a major mineral phase in the all xenolith components, but non-existent in the host lava. Recent literature uses trace element abundance in lavas to infer that amphibole fractionation occurs at many arc settings, yet no physical evidence saw the process occurring (e.g. Davidson et al., 2007). This composite xenolith shows amphibole forming under both reaction and cumulate conditions, two processes which amphibole may evolve a magma in arc settings. As such, the evidence shown can be used as a novel analogue to processes occurring in other arc settings.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction -- 2. Literature review -- 3. Aims of study -- 4. Methods -- 5. Results -- 6. Interpretation -- 7. Petrogenic model: combining petrographic and geochemical interpretations -- 8. Conclusions.


Theoretical thesis. Bibliography: pages 46-50

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis MRes


MRes, Macquarie University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Department, Centre or School

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

Simon Turner

Additional Supervisor 1

Sandra Piazolo


Copyright Mitchell Gerdes 2016. Copyright disclaimer:




1 online resource (v, 58 pages) colour illustrations

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