Macquarie University
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Development of a point-of-care diagnostic prototype system for kidney health monitoring

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posted on 2022-05-20, 03:03 authored by Sumedha Prabhu

Early-stage diagnosis of a disease is significantly essential for a healthier lifestyle. Creatinine is a biological metabolic waste that constantly gets diffused in the human blood. It is excreted by the kidneys to reduce levels of blood toxicity, thus maintaining homeostasis. Kidney function can be qualitatively and quantitatively monitored by checking levels of creatinine in serum samples. Therefore, kidney disease patients are prescribed for frequent testing of their serum creatinine levels. Currently, serum creatinine levels testing can be done only at pathological laboratories. It is time-consuming, expensive, requires a pathologist for venepuncture, sample analysis and creatinine concentration data analysis. For understanding the results, a patient requires to visit a general practitioner/nephrologist/oncologist. Therefore, fast-acting, portable, cost and time-effective Point-of-Care (PoC) devices are in demand. In this work, an Internet of Things (IoT)-based creatinine specific, precise, easily operable, accurate, portable, patient-friendly, internet connectable, rechargeable, reusable, cost and time effective PoC diagnostic device prototype for the measurement of creatinine levels from serum, is developed in a stepwise manner.


Table of Contents

1 Introduction -- 2 Literature Review -- 3 MEMS ID Sensors and EIS Technique -- 4 MIP Functionalized MEMS ID Sensor for Creatine Detection using EIS Technique -- 5 Functionality Evaluation of MEMS Sensor for Varied Selective Functionalization Thickness -- 6 IoT Enabled Microcontroller-Based MEMS ID Sensor Connected PoC System -- 7 Creatinine Colorimetric Assay Kit for Validation of PoC Diagnostic Prototype Sensing System -- 8 Conclusion and Future Work


A thesis submitted in fulfilments of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to School of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. ADDITIONAL SUPERVISOR 3: Guozhen Liu

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis PhD


Thesis (PhD), Macquarie University, Faculty of Science and Engineering

Department, Centre or School

School of Engineering

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

Subhas Mukhopadhyay

Additional Supervisor 1

Andrew Davidson

Additional Supervisor 2

Mohsen Asadniaye Fard Jahromi


Copyright disclaimer: Copyright Sumedha Prabhu 2021.




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