Evaluation of energy generation and GHG emission reduction potentials through different solid waste management In NSW
thesisposted on 28.03.2022, 14:13 by Behnam Hosseini Dastjerdi
The ever-increasing global human population as well as the expanding urbanisation and industrialization have resulted in numerous challenges for the environment. Solid waste generation and employing sustainable waste management strategies are the important issues which have become controversial challenges worldwide. Australia is among the countries with the highest rates of waste generation per capita and New South Wales (NSW), with the most population, is responsible for more than one third of whole waste generated in this country. NSW is currently facing serious issues in waste management. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy generation and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction potentials from waste to energy (WtE) technologies in NSW. In addition, waste management policies and legislation in NSW were reviewed and transportation of waste, interstate, as one of their consequences was assessed. The results indicated that, by employing a combination of incineration and anaerobic digestion for landfill waste in NSW, about 50 PJ of energy could be generated; this is equivalent to around 3.4 % of total energy consumption in NSW and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Simultaneously, GHG emissions would be reduced by about 900,000 tonnes CO2 eq. However, Current transportation of waste to Queensland accounts for GHG emissions of about 208 kg CO2 eq per tonne of waste. These findings show that to efficiently employ WtE strategies, some policies and legislation need reconsideration, like those related to levies, which should be harmonized at a national level. Furthermore, new legislation and incentives should be introduced in order to properly deal with exploiting energy from waste through incineration technology and anaerobic digestion, to keep organic waste out of landfills. Ultimately, strict supervision and rigorous enforcement is needed to ensure that the laws are obeyed.