Macquarie University
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ICT in ELT: a mixed methods study of Lebanese national policies, university courses and English teachers

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posted on 2022-03-28, 18:57 authored by Youmen Chaaban
The integration of technology into an educational context has long been identified as a long process consisting of multi-level changes. This change process dictates the presence of enabling factors which promote the integration of technology at three levels of the educational system : the national, university and school levels. When such enablers are absent or insufficient, the integration of technology faces barriers which hinder its further progress. While the examination of technology integration has received considerable attention in developed countries, too little attention has been paid to the process in developing countries, such as Lebanon. Therefore, this paper presents data from a mixed methods study that explored the integration of technology into the Lebanese educational system through an analysis of national policy, university preparation, and classroom practice. Participants at each level provided useful insights into the factors that either impeded or supported the progress of technology integration. The study derived its theoretical framework from Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Using this framework, the current and future status of technology integration was made possible. Study 1 reports on research which examined national policy plans, funding schemes, curriculum development documents, and support for technology adoption provided at the government level. The study identified the role of government in assisting English teachers to adopt technology. Data was collected through interviews with three leading government officials and an analysis of primary sources of data obtained from the Department of Education. Study 2 reports on research which investigated the role of Lebanese universities in preparing pre-service teachers for the integration of technology into their professional practice. Through interview data, seven teacher educators provided comprehensive descriptions of their courses. Successively, questionnaire data obtained from pre-service teachers corroborated the findings from the interviews by examining pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the environmental factors and individual characteristics operating at the university level. Study 3 reports on research which explored teacher readiness to adopt educational technology in their classrooms. Questionnaire data followed by selective interview data investigated the levels of technology use of English teachers working in Tripoli, the second largest city in Lebanon. The study was also designed to achieve an understanding of in-service teachers’ perceptions of the environmental factors and individual characteristics operating at the school level. These combined findings revealed the barriers and enablers operating at each level of the educational system. The study can serve as a vehicle for educational change and development in the Lebanese educational context as it identified the issues that need to be addressed and others that need to be consolidated, in order for English teachers to effectively integrate technology and enhance their teaching and student learning with technology. A model has been designed to help stakeholders grapple with the different factors that should be taken into consideration at each level investigated, as well as from the interrelationships among the levels. A possible “blueprint” for future development in the field of ICT in the English classroom across Lebanon was developed in the form of recommendations for the different stakeholders.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction and the research problem -- Chapter 2. Literature review -- Chapter 3. Methodological approach -- Chapter 4. Data description and analysis at the policy level -- Chapter 5. Data description and analysis at the university level -- Chapter 6. Data description and analysis at the school level -- Chapter 7. Discussion.


Theoretical thesis. Bibliography: pages 304-321

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis PhD


PhD, Macquarie University, Faculty of Human Sciences, School of Education

Department, Centre or School

School of Education

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

Robyn Moloney

Additional Supervisor 1

John Hedberg


Copyright by Youmen Chaaban 2014. Copyright disclaimer:




1 online resource (xxii, 367 pages) tables

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