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Indonesian EFL learners’ development of academic literacy: a study of grammatical metaphor

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posted on 28.03.2022, 09:39 by Nur Afifi
This study explores the development of the academic literacy of Indonesian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) by investigating their grammatical metaphor (GM) deployment. The participants of the study are English Department students in The State College for Islamic Studies located in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia. The EFL learners’ academic texts were collected cross-sectionally, representing two academic years of undergraduate study: the first and third year. The study uses quantitative and qualitative measurements to analyse the deployment of grammatical metaphor. First, frequency and variation analysis is conducted to reveal the prevalence and variation with which the learners deploy grammatical metaphor. Second, qualitative measures of metaphorical control are employed. Finally, this study analyses the differences in the students’ use of GM in their writing across the two years. The findings show that both groups deployed similar types of reconstruals of experiential and logical metaphors. Process to Thing transcategorisation is the largest type of experiential GM reconstrual across the two groups, while Relator to Process is the major logical GM reconstrual in both groups. Third year students surpass the first year group in the frequency and proportion of instances of experiential and logical GM deployment. In terms of metaphorical control, both groups show similar control over experiential and logical GM reconstrual. The findings suggest that a more explicit pedagogy to expose students to GM and more basic lexicogrammar teaching to enable the students to write academically valued texts are warranted.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction -- Chapter 2. Literature review -- Chapter 3. Methodology -- Chapter 4. Research findings and discussion -- Chapter 5. Conclusion -- References -- Appendices.


Bibliography: pages 79-89 Empirical thesis.

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis MRes


MRes, Macquarie University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Linguistics

Department, Centre or School

Department of Linguistics

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

John Knox


Copyright Nur Afifi 2016. Copyright disclaimer: http://mq.edu.au/library/copyright






1 online resource (viii, 123 pages) graphs, tables

Former Identifiers

mq:70136 http://hdl.handle.net/1959.14/1260609