Teacher-created video instruction in the primary school classroom: how does using teacher-created video instruction impact on students and teachers?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that teacher-created computer-based video instruction (CBVI) using iPads had on students’ academic, behavioural and affective learning in primary school classrooms. Despite the proliferation of multimedia devices into primary school classrooms, there is limited evidence examining teacher-created video instruction in this context, particularly regarding its effect on academic growth and holistic engagement. The video instruction created for this study applied both Cognitive Load Theory (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006; R. E. Mayer, 2004) and multimedia design principles (Fiorella & Mayer, 2018; R. Mayer, 2014; R. E. Mayer, 2008). This aimed to optimise student cognitive engagement with the video instruction and provided a solid theoretical and evidence-based justification for CBVI to be used as a pedagogical method in the primary school classroom. The study used a repeated-measures design with counterbalancing to measure the effects of using CBVI during mathematics lessons on student mathematical achievement scores, time-on task and attitudes towards learning in mathematics. Three Year 3 classes (n = 49) completed three mathematics lessons, each one using a different mode of instruction: CBVI created by the regular class teacher, CBVI created by a stranger, and a traditional live lesson delivered by the regular class teacher. Results were statistically analysed using a Linear Mixed Model. No significant growth in learning was detected during the video modes of instruction, however a significant growth result was achieved for the traditional live teaching mode (p=0.000), which was unexpected. Behavioural engagement was considerably higher during the CBVI lessons than traditional live lessons and students preferred their teacher’s voice on the video. The three teachers were also interviewed to examine how CBVI in mathematics changed the dynamics in the classroom and affected their teaching. Two main themes emerged from these teacher perceptions: 1) The impact of CBVI for students; and 2) the impact on teacher wellbeing. This research provides evidence to contribute to educational technology research, specifically, that there are benefits for students and teachers when using teacher-created CBVI. Further research is needed to better understand the factors that influence cognitive development of students using CBVI and to also explore the effect of utilising this pedagogical method on teacher wellbeing.