Macquarie University
2 files

The aboriginal language of Sydney: a partial reconstruction of the indigenous language of Sydney based on the notebooks of William Dawes of 1790-91, informed by other records of the Sydney and surrounding languages to c.1905

posted on 2022-03-28, 21:52 authored by Jeremy Macdonald Steele
'Wara wara!" - 'go away' - the first indigenous words heard by Europeans at the time of the social upheaval that began in 1788, were part of the language spoken by the inhabitants around the shores of Port Jackson from time immemorial. Traces of this language, funtionally lost in two generations, remain in words such as 'dingo' and 'woomera' that entered the English language, and in placenames such as 'Cammeray' and 'Parramatta'. Various First Fleeters, and others, compiled limited wordlists in the vicinity of the harbour and further afield, and in the early 1900s the surveyor R.H. Mathews documented the remnants of the Dharug language. Only as recently as 1972 were the language notebooks of William Dawes, who was noted by Watkin Tench as having advanced his studies 'beyond the reach of competition', uncovered in a London university library. The jottings made by Dawes, who was learning as he went along, are incomplete and parts defy analysis. Nevertheless much of his work has been confirmed, clarified and corrected by reference to records of the surrounding languages, which have similar grammatical forms and substantial cognate vocabulary, and his verbatim sentences and model verbs have permitted a limited attempt at reconstructing the grammar.


Table of Contents

Introduction -- Sources and literature -- The notebooks -- Manuscripts and databases -- Neighbouring languages -- Phonology -- Pronouns -- Verbs -- Nouns -- Other word classes -- Retrospect and prospect.


Bibliography: p. 327-333

Degree Type

Thesis masters research


Thesis (MA), Macquarie University (Division of Society, Culture, Media & Philosophy. Warawara - Dept. of Indigenous Studies)

Department, Centre or School

Warawara - Department of Indigenous Studies

Year of Award



Copyright Jeremy Steele 2005. Copyright disclaimer:




New South Wales


xxi, 333 p. ill. (some col.), maps (some col.), ports

Former Identifiers