The development of intercultural pedagogy in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Indonesian universities
The teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia has been shaped by a succession of laws and policies and changes in curriculum. Today, teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Indonesia are encouraged by curriculum to use an intercultural approach. In multilingual Indonesia, this approach has particular opportunity to challenge teachers’ understandings and critical awareness of their own and others’ values, beliefs, and behaviours, both within Indonesia, and abroad. However, the development of intercultural pedagogy in Indonesia has been uneven in both national and regional contexts.
This study investigates both policy and practice, combining macro (discourse building) and micro (personal belief and trajectory) levels. It first examines educational laws and language policy texts from 1984 – 2013 using critical discourse analysis. It then analyses interview data of six university EFL teachers in three locations in Indonesia, using inductive narrative analysis. By using this two-level methodological approach, the study identifies both professional and personal influences and development of intercultural pedagogy.
Findings indicate positive directions in both curriculum development and diverse teacher practice in the three different contexts. Tensions exist for some teachers in reconciling notions of national and intercultural identity. The thesis concludes with a discussion of ways to further support intercultural pedagogy for EFL in Indonesian teacher education, through encouraging teacher reflexivity on the teachers’ intercultural courses and critical intercultural skills for students in the classrooms.