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Towards photodynamic therapy with ionising radiation: nanoparticle-mediated singlet oxygen generation and quantification

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posted on 28.03.2022, 19:26 by Sandhya Clement
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved procedure for the treatment of cancer and other health conditions by using singlet oxygen, a highly reactive oxygen generated from a photosensitizer drug upon photoactivation. Certain limitations exist with the current photosensitizers such as poor solubility in biological media, lack of selective accumulation and minimal absorption in the tissue transparency window. Also, the limited tissue penetration of light in the absorption band of most photosensitizers makes the PDT unsuitable for deep tissue cancer treatments. To improve the performance of these photosynthesizers in deep tissue PDT, nanoparticles are introduced eitheras a carrier, as the photosynthesizer itselfor as an energy transducer. The X-ray / gamma ray activated nanoparticles can trigger the photosensitizer drug to generate singlet oxygen. Additionally, inorganic nanoparticles may interact more strongly with X-ray and/or gamma rays rather than the tissue, allowing the effects of radiation to be concentrated near the nanoparticle surface. Furthermore, nanoparticles can also be molecularly targeted to cancer cells. The main goal of this PhD project is to enhance the singlet oxygen generation capability of the photosensitizer by conjunction with different nanoparticles which enhances selectivity to enable deep tissue PDT treatment. This thesis adopts the "thesis-by-publication" approach and it is preceded by a brief introduction chapter mentioning the thesis outline, followed by two chapters regarding the PDT review and characterisation techniques, one conclusion chapter and four results chapters containing my publications and manuscripts (all first author papers, one published in Journal of Nanoparticles Research, one published in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, one published in Nature Scientific Reports, one in manuscript form ready for submission in Journal of Advanced Healthcare Materials).


Table of Contents

1 General introduction and outline -- 2 Nanoparticle mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) - An overview -- 3 Nanoparticles characterization and singlet oxygen detection technique -- 4 Bright, water-soluble CeF3 photo-, cathodo-, and X-ray luminescent nanoparticles -- 5 Nanoparticle-mediated singlet oxygen generation from photosensitizers -- 6 X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates: Determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield -- 7 Functionalised gold nanoparticle verteporfin conjugate for m690 nm and X-ray mediated photodynamic therapy -- 8 Conclusion and future perspective -- A Appendix 1: Interaction of X-rays with selected scintillators- A theoretical approach


Bibliography: pages 173-192 Theoretical thesis.

Awarding Institution

Macquarie University

Degree Type

Thesis PhD


PhD, Macquarie University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Department, Centre or School

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Year of Award


Principal Supervisor

Ewa M. Goldys

Additional Supervisor 1

Wei Deng


Copyright Sandhya Clement 2016 Copyright disclaimer: http://mq.edu.au/library/copyright




1 online resource (xiv, 192 pages) colour illustrations

Former Identifiers

mq:72269 http://hdl.handle.net/1959.14/1283098